Next generation structures and materials are key to aerospace, the built environment and exploring space. Hierarchical materials, fractal structures, and polydisperse systems offer dramatic gains in efficiency. Advances in 3D printing and self-assembly mean that these novel technologies can be practically manufactured.
Silicon-based electronic computing is hitting energetic and technological barriers, and quantum computing remains a theoretical challenge of the future. To maintain an exponential increase in computing power, we require alternative frameworks. Two which we are studying are memristors and photonic computing.
Information science underpins modern society. Quantum information science is creating the next generation of information technology, where effects like superposition and entanglement are exploited to envisage qualitatively new technologies. This field also gives an alternative perspective on physics, wherein information takes centre stage.
Innovation is to organizations what evolution is to organisms: it is how organisations adapt to changes in the environment and improve. New mathematical models of component recombination and the building blocks of economic complexity offer fundamental insights into how firms, countries and technologies develop.
The global behaviour of local processes depends on the geometry of their underlying space. Studying processes on ideal graphs and on irregular networks derived from real data uncovers surprising behaviour in biological, social and financial systems. The tools of this field include spectral, replica, community and combinatoric techniques.
Institutional risk originates from ordinary economic uncertainties. But when these risks propagate across inter-connected institutions, internal amplification can lead to dramatic exposures. These systemic risks can be mitigated by applying ideas from cascading failures, diversification and extreme value theory.