Going, going, gone
Hawking’s black hole evaporation process suggests that we may need to choose between quantum unitarity and other basic physical principles such as no-signaling, entanglement monogamy, and the equivalence principle. We here show that the Hawking’s quantum model for the black hole evaporation is consistent with the above fundamental principles. Our analysis does not involve exotic new physics, but rather uses standard quantum theory, general relativity, and the Einstein–Hilbert action including matter. We explicitly show that the whole state consisting of matter and radiation (in a joint superposition of different energy states) is pure at any stage of the evaporation process, including the particular case of 0 mass. Moreover, after full evaporation the state for radiation at infinity is pure and in one-to-one correspondence with the initial state forming the black hole. Thus there is no information loss upon full evaporation according to the quantum information theory. The original entanglement of the black hole matter (if any) gets transferred to the outgoing particles via a process similar to entanglement swapping, without violation of causality (as proved explicitly). On the other hand, if the initial state is a tensor product state, the entanglement of Hawking particles, present in the intermediate phase, is broken when the black hole evaporates completely. Therefore, the final state (entangled or tensor product depending on the nature of initial state) after the full black hole evaporation is pure without loss of information.